PAKISTAN PROFILE

INTRODUCTION

Located in South Asia, bordering China, Afghanistan, Iran and India, with a coastline along the Arabian sea. Pakistan’s diverse ethnic population is spread across unique terrain; Mountains and glaciers, deserts, great rivers, and flat fertile land. From the precipitous peaks of the Karakoram range to the fertile Indus River plain, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is home to a diversity of stunning landscapes and amazing linguistic diversity.
Pakistan, is a federal parliamentary republic, where the four provincial assemblies enjoy a high degree of autonomy and residuary powers. The country has unique social and political characteristics pertaining to not only its rich history and cultural heritage but also due to its geopolitical challenges. 
A population exceeding 200 million, Pakistan is also one of the youngest countries in the world. 64% of the country’s population is under the age of 29, with some 30% between the ages of 15-29. Considering the fact that Pakistan will continue to be a young country for the next three decades, the opportunities for social, economic and political progress have never been so great. ( (UNDP, 2017)
With growing prospects of fulfilling its great potential, Pakistan confronts a multitude of challenges ranging from climate change to gender-based violence. Women account for 48% of the population, the negative impact of discrimination based on gender carries a personal, social, political and economic cost the country can no longer afford.

GEOGRAPHY

LOCATION:

Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES:
30 00 N, 70 00 E
 
MAP REFERENCES:
Asia

AREA:

Total: 796,095 sq km
Land: 770,875 sq km
Water: 25,220 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 37

AREA - COMPARATIVE:

Slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California

LAND BOUNDARIES:

Total: 7,257 km
Border countries (4): Afghanistan 2,670 km, China 438 km, India 3,190 km, Iran 959 km

COASTLINE:

1,046 km

CLIMATE:

Mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

TERRAIN:

Divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain in the center and east, and the Balochistan Plateau in the south and west

ELEVATION:

Mean elevation: 900 m
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
Highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m

NATURAL RESOURCES:

Arable land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

LAND USE:

Agricultural land: 35.2%
Arable land 27.6%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 6.5%
Forest: 2.1%
Other: 62.7% (2011 est.)

IRRIGATED LAND:

202,000 sq km (2012)
POPULATION - DISTRIBUTION:
The Indus River and its tributaries attract most of the settlement, with Punjab province the most densely populated

NATURAL HAZARDS:

Frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

ENVIRONMENT - INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS:

Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

GEOGRAPHY - NOTE:

Controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent